Der Mästermyr-Fund

Bei Drainagearbeiten in einem Sumpf bei Mästermyr in Schweden fand man eine wikingerzeitliche Werkzeugkiste. Diese Kiste – oder kleine Truhe – ist ein typischer Vertreter wikingerzeitlichen Truhenbaus: ein leicht gerundeter Deckel, abgeschrägte Seiten, die als Füße überstehen, einfache nagelverstärkte Verbindungen und schlichte Eisenbeschläge. Durch ihre Länge ist die Mäsermyrtruhe ein guter Aufbewahrungsort auch für sperrigere Gegenstände wie Werkzeug. Geschlossen bietet sie einen recht bequemen Sitzplatz für den Arbeitenden. In Anlehnung an andere wikingerzeitliche Truhen baue ich die Mästermyrtruhe nicht nur aus Eiche nach sondern auch aus Kiefer, die beim Bau wikingerzeitlicher Truhen auch oft zum Einsatz kam. Auch eine Variante mit flachem Deckel ist zu haben.

Die Werkzeug-Kiste ist aus Eichenholz, gefunden in Gotland, 10. Jhdt.
Abmaße der Teile:
Seitenteile: 86.0–88.5 x 20.5 x 1.8 cm and 87.5–89.5 x 20.9 x 1.8 cm
Endstücke: 22.4-26.2 x 1.8-2.5 x 24.2 cm and 21.5-26.3 x 23.8 x 1.8-2.7 cm
Deckel: 88.5 x 24.0 x 3.2 cm.

Back Cover

Mästermyr Find, The

Arwidsson, Greta and Berg, Gosta

Availability: In stock.

$17.95

 

 

The Mästermyr Project

US Naval Observatory Master Clock time (Eastern time zone) is:
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An effort by the members of TheForge
 


 

In 1936 on an island off the coast of Sweden a farmer plowing a recently drained swampland was stopped by something buried in the ground. He found his plowshare entangled in an old chain. As he dug deeper he found the chain wrapped around a chest that contained many old tools. Subsequent investigation by Sweden’s archaeologists revealed that it was a tool chest from the Viking era of about 10 centuries ago. They were blacksmiths and carpenters tools over 1000 years old!

It has been the goal of the Mastermyr team to accurately recreate the artifacts of the Find in the interest of investigating ancient manufacturing methods and providing an exhibit for the purpose of public education. In addition, the Mastermyr Project is partly intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of theforge (ABANA’s blacksmith-related mailing list) as a viable instrument for supporting and furthering the goals and interests of ABANA, and presenting blacksmithing as an ancient craft of profound significance to nearly all world cultures past and present.

The project members are an association of volunteer blacksmiths, from the United States and Canada who communicate on theforge. Each participating smith reproduced one or more of the included items. The work was to be completed by January 2002. Predictably, life did it’s thing and we had items going out the door literally at the last minute, which in and of itself served to lend an element of excitement as the initial phase of the project came to a resoundlingly successful conclusion.

ABANA provided the Mastermyr Project with its first public viewing during the 2002 conference in Lacrosse, Wisconsin. Please consider that this collection of recreated artifacts is especially appropriate given the long history of Scandinavian culture and tradition in this region of the United States. From all accounts, the collection met with enthusiastic praise from those who saw it. Kudos to Mr. Rob Fertner for bringing most of the items by car to the conference and helping to set up the display. Please see Mästermyr Progress Link for images of the reproductions as they appeared on display at the 2002 conference in LaCrosse. See the Mästermyr Smiths. for a list of the smiths who have participated and given their time and expertise to this project to date. And please bear in mind that we have as yet completed only about 45% of the reproductions. There are about 55 items left needing to be made. We welcome and encourage all smiths to belly up to the bar and give it their best. To those who helped make this effort a success, a heartfelt round of applause and thanks are in order. You have much to be proud of!

Images from the find can be viewed in the Mästermyr Images Library.

All Images and Catalog information are taken directly from the volume „THE MASTERMYR FIND, A Viking Age Tool Chest from Gotland“, by Greta Arwidsson and G�sta Berg. Larson Publishing Company, Lompoc California, with permission. Our sincere appreciation and thanks are extended to Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien (The Royal Academy of Letters, History, and Antiquities), Stockholm, Sweden for their kind permission to post the photos and drawings from the book on this site. The volume is available from Larson Publishing for $19.95 post paid.

Larson Publishing Company
5426 E. Hwy 246
Lompoc CA 93436
mailto:larbooks@impulse.net
For detailed information, including basic dimensions of the items scheduled for reproduction, see the Catalog.

For a quick peek at some of our fine M�stermyr smiths, go to our Rogue’s Gallery.      Meet Cheyenne the Wonder Dog, and Jack in his cape and tights!

For those wishing to read a truly disgusting piece of poorly written, slanted yellow journalism, please read „Weapons For Sale“ by CBS News. We encourage you to read this article, get good and angry about it, and write to CBS and as many of their advertisers as possible. If we don’t put an end to corporate lying, nobody will. If you find the contents of this article as intolerably disgusting as I do, please take a couple of minutes to write a paragraph expressing your displeasure with the hatchet job Ms. Fiandaca has done on Mr. Licata and ask that CBS make a very public apology and send Fiandaca to the unemployment line. Write a letter to the CEO, Les Moonves and let him know that you find this sort of thing to be intolerable and demand they come clean about it and make public apologies not only to Mr. Licata, but to the entire nation. Here are the two letters I wrote. The first one was to CBS News and the second to the CEO of CBS.

Letter to CBS News

Concerning your article on the wares of Mr. Licata of Garfield NJ, I must express my displeasure. The content and timbre of the article smacks of either sorrowful ignorance on the topic of such weaponry, or perhaps your Ms. Fiandaca has brought yellow journalism to an all-time new low. In either case, Ms. Fiandaca has left your organization appearing very foolish at best and disgustingly dishonest at worst. If I were her manager, I would fire her on the spot, print a front-page apology to the viewers and readers, and beg the forgiveness of Mr. Licata for allowing such incalculably flawed material to make it to press. I would then fire myself for having allowed such nonsense to be aired/printed and find strong cause to hang my head in abject shame for a long time to come.

The very fact that she failed to identify the quoted neighbors who were supposedly so set against Mr. Licata’s business is basis enough to see to it that she join the ranks of the unemployed. I, for one, remained unconvinced that any such comments were made by anyone that could be considered his neighbors and would bet good money that were I to mount my own investigation into how this piece was put together that we would find that either no such persons exist or that Ms. Fiandaca primed them with misleading information in order to steer their opinions to a predetermined value.

I openly challenge CBS to revisit this story and investigate the manner in which the information was gathered and to determine just how honestly it was represented to the viewers.

This story was fraught with inaccuracies and innuendo and was almost completely devoid of any substantive truth. More disturbing still was Ms. Fiandaca’s use of certain tacit assumptions including the ones that imply there is something wrong with producing and selling such articles and that they, in and of themselves, pose a danger to „the children“. This latter is one of the oldest and most dishonest ploys in the book and you should all be hanging your heads low for utter shame that you allowed such unforgivable drivel to be published in what appears to be either a failure on CBS’s part to discharge due diligence regarding accuracy in reporting, or the satisfaction of some profit motive, the interests of which strongly appear to be in diametrical opposition to the truth and thereby those of the general welfare of the public.

It will be interesting to see whether CBS is willing to face its responsibilities squarely and honestly or if you will shrink away from the truth in the manner of cowards and thieves. I am not a letter writer by any means, but the character of this report is so intolerably distasteful and rotten with misleading statements and perhaps even outright lies, that I was moved to bring it to your attention.

Nothing would please me more than to see you make amends by setting the record straight so I may be proven wrong in my suspicions that you lack the decency to speak truthfully, but I will not be holding my breath. I welcome a large plate of crow, which I will consume with a smiling countenance, should your organization prove to be up to the truth. If not, then you shall have earned my disdain and dismissal as bumbling fops and cheap liars whose character I will happily expose as opportunity permits.

I await your response.

-Andrew Vida

 

Letter to Les Moonves, CEO of CBS

Les Moonves, CEO CBS Inc. 51-T W. 52nd St. New York, NY 10019 Sunday, May 16, 2004 RE: Report on Steven Licata by Cheryl Fiandaca

Dear Mr. Moonves,

It is my displeasure to bring to your attention a report made by your Ms. Fiandaca about a business owned and operated by one Mr. Steven Licata of Garfield NJ. In her report, Ms. Fiandaca paints what appears to be a highly misleading characterization of Mr. Licata and his business. The report is fraught with innuendo, implying that Mr. Licata is engaging in illegitimate business and somehow endangering the community in which he resides. This report greatly impugns his personal character without providing so much as an iota of substance to support her implications. I have made my displeasure known to CBS News by email, a copy of which is enclosed for your information. I will further make it known to you that Ms. Fiandaca.s report has come to the attention of hundreds, if not over one thousand, blacksmiths and knife makers nation wide, and beyond. I am in contact with many of them and I can tell you that they have received this report with utter shock, dismay, and anger. CBS has managed to earn the derision and ire of many people with this publication and Ms. Fiandaca has managed to gravely injure the image of CBS. From the timbre of the responses I have seen thus far, CBS may experience some lingering negative effects of this unjust, inept, and apparently mal-intended report. Time will tell.

I find it hard to understand why a broadcasting company such as yours would be so irresponsible as to publish a report on a matter without fulfilling its obligation to due diligence in sufficiently researching the subject matter beforehand. Such ineptitude and negligence is to be expected of a small child, but not from a presumably well-trained professional journalist. The only other possible conclusion one can reasonably come to is that CBS knowingly allowed one of its agents to embark on a vicious tirade of character assassination against a man who is an artist and a craftsman running a perfectly legitimate business similar to those of hundreds of others across the United States. A rational and reasonable person may only guess at the motives for such inexcusable behavior and can only wonder whether it was intentional. Further damning your spokesperson is the fact that Mr. Licata also makes very fine musical instruments, yet nothing of this was mentioned. Asking why this might be so, a few answers that immediately make themselves painfully obvious are bias against Mr. Licata.s business, a depraved and callous disregard for his rights and welfare, and some agenda to purposefully bring him to personal harm. Yes Mr. Moonves, these are the questions that come into the minds of reasoning people when they see such inexplicably shabby treatment of individuals by billion dollar corporate entities such as CBS.

That CBS would publish a whining polemic against a man who minds his own business and harms nobody is bordering on the unforgivable and seriously calls into question the character and abilities of its staff from the CEO down to its janitors. The nature of the innuendo therein is so egregiously flawed and seemingly vicious as to defy the belief that it could have happened by accident. The fact that CBS has effectively acted as an instrument of the state by .exposing. him to local authorities brings deep suspicion to your doorstep. CBS has now demonstrated itself to be a .squealer,. broadcasting the indelible image of a large corporate entity that is not to be trusted in any way, or for any reason. I regret to inform you that CBS is no longer a credible entity.

Further damaging your image and driving credibility into the negative integer range is the fact that at least a dozen letters to CBS/Fiandaca were responded to with the precise same canned letter which I have also attached for your information. Had the letter been nothing more than an acknowledgement of receipt, I would see no problem with it; but that it contained what I can only term as fawning and disingenuously hyperbolic language, telling the recipient that their input is .incalculably valuable., only serves to make CBS look all the more foolish, insincere, and as if they are not to be trusted.

As if this was not enough, I will now address the issue of hypocrisy at CBS, which fairly well lays waste all but the barest thread of a hope for any redemption in the minds of intelligent adults. As your esteemed Ms. Fiandaca was busily going about the task of trying to set to ruin the business of an upstanding member of a New Jersey community with her baseless innuendo with which she paints a man as a somehow dangerous supplier of .deadly. weapons to an unspecified, yet similarly smeared clientele, CBS panders to the public fascination with violence by airing productions such as .Helter Skelter. and .Swordfish., to name but two of a seemingly endless torrent of mindlessly violent television productions. I would be very interested in knowing the justification for glorifying violence by airing it as commonly and wantonly as CBS does while from the other side of the corporate mouth you whine about it whilst damaging honest people in the process. How does CBS explain such behavior such that we, the public to whom you are bound by law to serve, will say back to you .yes that is perfectly reasonable and right.? I defy CBS to present such an explanation for review by your viewers.

Since the report I have been in contact with Mr. Licata, of whom I knew nothing beforehand. He seems an articulate and intelligent man, judging from my exchanges with him, and shows no sign of being the shady character that your agent, Ms. Fiandaca, offered up in innuendo to the public. Based on my discussions with Mr. Licata, he appears to have been significantly damaged by the report, and to be candid it is my hope that he retains counsel to investigate the possibility of taking legal action against CBS, but that is neither my business nor relevant to the purpose of this letter.

What is relevant is my challenge to you personally, Mr. Moonves, as I have challenged CBS in the more general case (see the enclosed letter) to have a different journalist (preferably a real one this time) reinvestigate Mr. Licata.s business, give it a proper and honest context, and do a follow up report. Upon finding nothing of substance against Mr. Licata.s business as may directly relate to the report as published, I would then expect a very public front-page style apology on air and in print to Mr. Licata and a formal letter asking his forgiveness. It may all sound a hokey bother to a large broadcast corporation such as CBS that may in fact deem itself immune to public opinion, but I assure you that you are being watched carefully by a not insignificant number of intelligent, capable, angry, and motivated people.

The only way CBS will be able to regain even a modicum of trust and credibility in the eyes of a large number of people will be to come clean on the issue of the report on Mr. Licata and make a four star retraction of every hideously contrived word Ms Fiandaca so irresponsibly spewed forth into the public domain. The next act of good faith that would go a longer way towards showing sincerity and integrity will be to fire Ms. Fiandaca forthwith and with cause, as well as her supervisors who allowed her shameful drivel to be published.

Short of these, there is certainly nothing CBS will be able to do that will convince me and many others that it is anything better than a hack organization and a den of vicious and petty liars whose access to broadcast facilities should be terminated forthwith. I am giving you fair notice that not only will I be copying as many of your advertisers as possible on this issue, I believe that hundreds and perhaps even thousands of others may be doing the same. I will also alert you to the fact that in some internet forums there has been talk of starting a campaign against CBS and its advertisers in response to Ms. Fiandaca.s report. I thought it only fair to alert you to this possibility.

I don.t know what sort of man you are, Mr. Moonves, so I will give you the benefit of the doubt by reserving all judgment on your character until such time as the CBS response becomes apparent to the public. I very much look forward to you proving yourself a man of integrity, honesty, fairness, and prompt action as I await CBS.s substantive response.

Project Note

This page presents a more or less complete catalog of the objects found in the field „Mästermyr“ in Gotland, Sweden.  This catalog is taken directly from the book with permission of the publisher and is formatted for easy discovery and interpretation of the elements relevant for anyone wishing to engage in reproducing anything contained herein.  Each item is titled in bold and underlined text with the item number also embolded at the end of each title line.  The broader catergories are formatted in bold and italicized text in 18 point type to easily distinguish them from actual objects.  Each description is appended with the objects‘ basic dimensions, given in metric units.  This is the best information we have on the find and should be sufficient to enable anyone to produce a faithful copy of any given item, though certain objects are in such a state of decay that a considerable amount of imaginative interpolation/extrapolation will be required on the part of the artist.  This, of course,
is part of the fun intended to underlie this effort.

My best wishes to one and all who choose to volunteer for this project, and my hat’s off to you all.

-Andy Vida


Catalogue
by Greta Arwidsson


The objects in the find have been given many different sets of numbers, which has made it particularly difficult to produce a systematic account. For the purposes of this publication I have used the numbers In the main catalogue of the State Historical Museum throughout. Where objects have been signed, these are the numbers which occur on them.

A draft description was written by Greta Arwidsson for the museum’s catalogue early in 1937 before conservation began. The present account is mainly based on this draft and its accompanying detailed drawings. It has only been necessary in some cases to add information about the condition of the objects after conservation; the objects which arrived in the museum in the autumn of 1937 (see above) are also described. In the museum’s main catalogue the find was given the number 21592.

The subsidiary numbers from the museum catalogue have been used in the present account, and these numbers also appear in the illustrations. Thus the reference ‚PI. 16:31‘ indicates that the fire-grid no.31 is illustrated in PI. 16.

The Chest  Pls. 1 and 15: 132, 13-16

Chest of oak with lock and hinges of iron.
The chest is rectangular with a lid curved in cross section and a flat bottom. The bottom is joined to the ends by mortice and tenon joints. The chest is held together by wooden pegs at the ends and sides. The ends and sides are trapezoid and therefore slope Inwards at a slight angle. The ends, which are made of a slightly thicker scantling than the sides and the bottom, have a rectangular mortice about 4 cm from the lower portion of each end thus forms a raised base.

The ends, sides, bottom and lid each seem to have been made from a single piece of wood. The underside of the lid is hollowed out, leaving an oval, trough-Iike depression. On either side of the depression the under-side of the lid is flat, where the original thickness of the plank has been preserved; this provides a good fit
against the upper edges of the end planks.

The sides are pegged to the ends and the bottom andthe bottom is joined by mortice and tenon to the ends; arectangular tenon at each end of the bottom plank fits into a mortice in the ends. The details of the construction can best be seen in the illustrations.The wood seems less carefully dressed on the inside
than on the outside. However, it is difficult to comment on details of the finish or on any surface treatment of
the wood because of its poor condition.

The nature of the damage to the wooden parts of the chest is not easy to determine. About half of one end is missing and there are jagged, elongated holes in the lid and the back. While this damage could have been 1 caused either before or during the deposition of the chest in Mastermyr, it is equally possible that it resulted from decay or from rough handling when the chest was discovered. However, an oval-shaped hole in the lid seems to have existed in antiquity, as its edges are worn or deliberately smoothed down.

The iron fittings on the chest consisted of a large lock, along lock-plate and two hinges. The fittings are all fragmentary and were „possibly already defective by the time the chest served Its last purpose as a container for tools.

The lock (nos. 13-15), of which some parts are pre-served on the inside of the front, was a draw-Iock of a
common type. The bolt consists of a square rod, now damaged and bent at the end, with an expanded disclike central part. Riveted to the disc are the ward plate and three cruciform wards, each 0.5 cm high.

A 47 cm-Iong lock-plate of iron is nailed to the outside of the chest in front of the lock. The upper edge of
edge for the tenons of the bottom plank. The lower the plate (immediately below the top of the chest) and  the right-hand edge, show an original straight, clipped inish; the cut corner between these two edges also eems to be original. The other two edges are more or less incomplete. Only eight nails of the original twenty now remain. The nails are turned over on the inside of the wooden panel; they are each about 2.7 cm long. The heads ( diameter 1.2 cm are well-made and sIightly domed. The keyhole, now corroded, had one vertical and one horizontal slot set at right angles. Its form indicates a simple thin hooked key of a completely different type from the keys with multi-toothed bits which are included in the find (nos. 2 and 3). Two vertical holes near the ends of the lock-plate may have held staples in which the bolt engaged. On the front of heads of the plate, between the keyhole and the two smaller openings, are two pairs of thin hammered rivets which seem to have served to hold another pair of loops through which the bolt ran.

There were probably two hinges (nos. 13-16), each consisting of two iron straps of equal width fitted across the lid and two thirds of the way to the bottom of the back plank. Crosswise wood fibres can be seen on the back of the straps. One end of the strap of the best-preserved hinge is rounded and the other end has a loop. Three nails with domed heads are preserved: the longest is 3.3 cm and indicates the minimum thickness of the original plank. There are holes for another two nails. The other flange of this hinge is incomplete: it has traces of only one nail, and -an open hook at one end  which may be fragmentary or may have been damaged by bending. It would probably have been more closed, and would have engaged in the loop of the other half of the hinge. The mount with the closed loop was attached to the back of the chest and the other to the lid.

A fragmentary iron band with two remaining nail the type found elsewhere on the chest and with crosswise wood fibres on the back presumably represents the other hinge.

Chest: sides 86.0–88.5 x 20.5 x 1.8 cm and 87.5–89.5 x 20.9 x 1.8 cm; ends 22.4-26.2 x 1.8-2.5 x 24.2 cm and 21.5-26.3 x 23.8 x 1.8-2.7 cm; lid 88.5 x 24.0 x 3.2 cm.

Iron chain   PI. 16:17

The chain is made up of twenty-six figure-of-eight shaped links, one oval link and one circular link. The links are welded together and the joins are no longer visible. The figure-of-eight links were pinched together
with tongs while hot.

Total length 2.4 m; links 8.7-11.1 cm long; circular link a) the bronze nodes on the hook: four punched ring-diameter 8.4 cm; rods (square section) 0.8-1.0 cm thick.

It was reported that the chain was wound round the chest when it was pulled up by the plough. It was sufficiently long to have been wound twice round it, but the chain could equally have attached the chest to some larger object, such as some means of transport.

So far as I know, no simple Viking Age chain of comparable dimensions has been found in Scandinavia, and it is difficult to identify its original purpose. Links of a similar size have been found both in cauldron-chains and chains used as harnesses for carts and other vehicles (Stolpe and Arne 1912, Vendel I, V and XI; Arwidsson 1954 and 1977; Almgren 1946). However, this chain is considerably longer and heavier than those used for these purposes. The complete cauldron-chain from the Oseberg ship burial does have a total length of about 2 m, but this measurement also includes the two suspension hooks. The chain from Sutton Hoo, a uniquely fine example of metal-work, is much longer (3.75 m) and very strong (Petersen 1951,409; Bruce Mitford 1972, fig. 16-17).

Steelyard    Pls. 2 and 16:1

Steelyard of iron and bronze consisting of an iron bar of generally round section with a small bronze disc at one end. A decorated cylindrical mount, 3.5 cm from the hook end of the bar , and two faceted nodes are also of bronze. There are no visible gradations on the bar.

The hook is suspended from a U-shaped shackle (damaged near the rivet), and consists of a suspension loop, an expanded middle section with a bronze node above and below it, and a flat hook which terminates in a pointed beak. The middle section is made up of four twisted rods surrounding a cylindrical ring.

The weight takes the form of an irregular double cone with a wrought, closed suspension loop. It is likely that the small flat ring with a small perforated projection belongs to the weight, although the connecting link between the two is missing.

Two large flat rings were also found, one of. which is still attached to a U-shaped shackle closed by a rivet just in front of the hook. About 1 cm further along is another such crosswise rivet which could have secured another shackle in which the second, loose, ring could have been suspended.

Ornament of various kinds occurs on the following parts of the steelyard:

a) the bronze nodes on the hook: four punched ring-and-dot motifs are set together on the rhomboid facets, one on the triangular facets. However, on the lower
node, two opposite sides have animal head-like ornaments.
b) the lower, flat part of the hook: along the edges of
one side are punched triangular impressions; the other side was probably undecorated.
c) the larger, flat rings: on both sides are small triangular impressions (like those on the hook).
d) the cylindrical bronze mount on the bar: along each edge there is a row of ring-and-dot motifs between
beaded borders.
e) the weight: at the base of the upper cone a row of triangular impressions set closely together; on its surface some irregular and perhaps worn impressions of a similar design.
Length of hook 10.3 cm. Rings, diameter 2.3 cm, 5.0 cm the loose ring) and 5.5 cm; thickness 1.0,2.0 and 1.5 mm. Bar, length 35.3 cm; diameter (round end) 0.8-0.5 cm; (square end) 0.8-0.6 cm. Weight, before conservation 311 g.

Keys, lock parts and pad-locks

Key of bronze and iron   Pls. 4 and 19:2

Key with a four-toothed bit set at right angles to the shank. The upper part of the shank is spool-shaped and consists of eight twisted iron rods, a square collar and a faceted node of bronze. The rods are twisted alternately to the right and the left; internally they are supported by a round iron disc; a bronze strip, only half of which is preserved, encircles the widest part. Only a short stub remains of the key’s suspens-ion loop. There are no traces of ornament.

Total length 21.4 cm; bit length 8.6 cm, thickness 0.8 cm.

Key of iron with wooden handle  Pls. 4 and 19:3

Key with a three-toothed bit set at aright angle to the shaft. It is made from a square iron rod fitted into a wooden handle. The wood has been identified as ash (see Appendix III). The original form of the handle cannot be determined.

Present length 19.6 m, of which the wood fragments cover 9.8 cm; bit length 9 cm, thickness 0.3 cm.

Lock-plate of iron    PI. 19:4

Sheet-iron lock-plate of irregular rectangular shape. It has four pins or rivet holes and the central part of one
side is turned up to form a rim 0.7 m high. The clipped edges of the plate are original. There is a row of rectangular holes (in which the teeth of the key fitted) in themiddle of the plate. No wood fragments were observed Padlock of iron Pls. 5 and 19: 11
before conservation.

9.6 x 4.5 cm. Thickness of plate 0.15 cm.

Lock-plate of iron    PI. 19:5

Fragmentary lock-plate with only one original edge.  In this edge and the opposite, damaged , edge there are two nail or rivet holes. There is the flat head of a pin or rivet near the row of keyholes. There are two separate rows of keyholes, one with three rectangular holes–apparently not in line�and the other two with only partly preserve rectangular openings.  The keyholes in the two groups arfe of different sizes.  No wood fragments were observed before conservation.

7.3 x 5.2 cm; thickness of plate 0.2 cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:6

Incomplete lock-spring with only one of the original three tongues preserved. In the middle there is a rivet hole.

15.1 x 2.4 x 0.3 cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:7

Lock-spring with three tongues, one of which is broken. In the middle there is a rivet hole. The tapering bolt is probably incomplete.

10..1 x3.1 xO.2cm.

Lock-spring of iron    Pl. 19:8

Iron sheet irregularly tongued at one end; this end is turned back and hammered down.  The other end is turned around and oval ring of round section.

10.5 x 2.7 x 0.3 cm; ring 5.1 x 3.9 x 0.5 cm.

(?)Lock-spring blank of iron    Pl. 19:9

Similar to n0.8, it has a tongued end, turned back and hammered down.  At the opposite end the sheet tapers and is turned round a aring of round section.

9.4 x 1.9 x 0.2 cm; ring, diameter 3.7 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.
Padlock of iron with brass solder  Pls. 5 and 19: 10

Padlock in two parts, with the bottom plate missing.  There are clear traces of a yellow metal solder � (?) brass � in the joins between the plates.  One of the short sides has a cylindrical socket in which the staple is engaged.  Each short side is decorated with three S-twisted iron rods.  The keyhole is T-shaped.  There re three springs.

4.5 x 3.0 x 2.2 cm; shackle height 2.3 cm, thickness of rod 0.4 cm; thickness of plate about 0.1 cm. mains.

Padlock of iron      Pls. 5 and 19: 11

Incomplete padlock similar to no.10 (above), although slightly smaller. The staple, part of the keyhole side and part of the bottom are missing. Only one spring remains intact. The decoration is similar to that on padlock no. 10 except that the rods are Z-twisted.

Padlock of iron      Pls. 5 and 19: 12

Incomplete padlock of the same typs as nos. 10-11(above). The staple and socket are missing as well as most of the keyhole side and the bottom. No springs remain. It is decorated with at least four Z-twisted rods.

2.8 x 2.2 x 2.6 cm; thickness of plate about 0.1 cm.

Cauldrons, (?)bucket and griddle

Griddle with rim of sheet-iron  Pls. 6 and 24:18

Round disc with up-turned rim and an irregular triangular hole in the middle. It is incomplete: more than a third of the rim and a portion of the bottom are missing. Part of the rim has been secondarily bent inwards. The griddle was repaired in antiquity with a triangular patch, riveted on with at least ten rivets. The patch is now partly detached.

Diameter 22.3 cm; thickness of plate 0.3-0.4 cm.

Cauldron of copper alloy   Pls. 11 and 24: 19

The almost cylindrical cauldron is made from four separate sheets joined together by overlapping and �stitching�: the edge of one sheet was inserted alternately over and under flaps cut at the edge of the sheet and secured by solderng. One sheet forms the bottom, two sheets make up the walls and the fourth is a 3.2 cm-wide strip lining the rim. This strip is thicker than the other sheets, especially along the upper edge. It was apparently lengthened with a smaller piece next to one of the handle attachments and reinforced by a bronze sheet folded over the rim. The bottom was probably slightly convex. The handle attachments consist of a circular iron plate and a ring-Ioop. Both are now broken off and one is fragmentary .The remains of an older attachment of copper alloy are probably preserved underneath the iron rivet of one of the iron handle attachments (see detailed drawing).

The cauldron is very fragmentary and battered. Old patches secured by numerous rivets can be seen in at least eleven places.  Before conservation the cauldron had a deposit of soot on the outside and a large amount of rust on the inside as well as another deposit, possibly of food remains.

Diameter about 26 cm, height 13.8 cm; thickness of The sides are straight and taper slightly towards the.plate 0.2 cm.bottom, which was probably slightly convex.  The iron band was made in two halves and riveted together with one rivet at each join.

Handle of iron   Pls. 10 and 24:20
The handle possibly belongs to the cauldron no. 19 ( see above). It is made from a flat rod of rectangular section and has open hooks at the ends. Its curvature has been exaggerated by bending and the distance between the hooks (outside measurement) is now only about 24.4 cm.

Length 24.4 cm, height 16.0 cm; rod width 1.2 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.

(?)Bucket mount of iron   PI. 25:21

Three pieces of a wide iron band, one edge of which is turned over. This was probably the rim mount of a (?)wooden bucket, with the remains of a riveted handle attachment. The longest piece is made up of two sheets joined together by a vertical row of rivets. A roughly rectangular mount, which clearly ends in a damaged loop just above the turned edge, is attached by rivets to the joined bands.

A rivet-hole about 4 cm from the upper edge of the other portion of the band suggests the position of the second handle attachment; there are also traces of rust here. At the lower edge of the band at least one rivet hole can be distinguished.

Band, width 9.9 cm, total length about 113 cm (70 + 23+ 20 cm); thickness of plate about 0.2 cm.

Fire grid of Iron   Pls.3 and 16:31

A square iron grid, originally suspended from four chains attached to a swivel-Ioop.

The frame of the grid is made from straight iron strips, riveted at each comer and bent at a near right angle along the middle to form a raised edge. The chains would probably have been attached to forged hooks at the ends of the strips (see detailed drawing). One of these hooks had secondarily been replaced by an Omega-shaped loop. The grid is made of ten parallel iron
Carpenters� and (?) Blacksmiths� iron tools.

Two files   Pls.7 and22:32-33

Files of rectangular section.  The larger file is cut on all four faces, one being markedly finer than the others.  The smaller file is cut on three faces, of which two are fine and the third rather coarser.  The tangs show no traces of wood.

No. 32: 21.6 x 0.8-1.1 x 0.5-0.9 cm.
No. 33: 16.9 x 0.5-1.0 x 0.4-0.6 cm.

Roundfile    PI.7:34

Strongly tapering tang of square section. The cut surface of the file covers about two thirds of the circumference. The tang shows no traces of wood.

15.1 x 0.4-0.7 cm.

File     PI. 23:35
File of rectangular section with coarse-cut surfaces on all four faces (5 cuts per cm). The point is very thin and has been damaged by bending. No visible traces of wood.

Overall length 16.1, length of cut section 7.8 cm, tang.8.3 cm, maximum width 0.9 cm, thickness 0.5 cm.

Rasp     PI. 23:37.

Coarse rasp of rectangular section and offset tang. Only one face is cut (4 cuts per cm).

Before conservation there were a few traces of wood on the tang.

Overall length 27.7 cm, tang 8.6 cm, width 1.5-1.0 cm, thickness 0.3-0.6 cm.

Rasp     Pls. 7 and 23:38

Similar to no. 37 (see above), but much smaller. Only one face is cut (about 11 cuts per cm); the cut area is, divided in half by a lengthwise groove.

Overall length 12.5 cm, tang 4.5 cm, width 0.9 cm, No.51: 16.6 x 0.5 x 0.7 cm; spoon length 2.2 cm,
thickness 0.5 cm. width 0.7 cm.

Knife     PI. 26:39

Knife with a long, straight tang and short blade; the back of the blade is straight and the cutting edge curved with a pointed angle between blade and tang. The back of the blade has a central ridge.

17.6 x 1.8 x 0.8 cm.

(?)Knife blade   PI.29:40
Fragmentary iron blade with straight back and cutting edge, broken off at the wider end (no trace of a tang).  Part of the cutting edge is serrated. The blade is damaged by bending and is tom in one place.

7.5 x 1.1 x 0.4.

Saw with wooden handle  Pls. 14 and 27:42

Broad hand-saw with teeth filed from opposite sides of the blade in groups of four. The straight back and edge of the knife-Iike blade are parallel for most of its length, but converge towards the point, the back showing the most pronounced curvature. The well-preserved handle is of ash, probably apiece of a branch, and is damaged at the end where the point of the tang is bent at right angles to the blade.

61.4 x 4.8 x 0.4 cm; handle 12.5 x 3.4 cm.

Six spoon-augers    Pls. 13 and 28:46-51

The six boring-bits are of different sizes but their form the same: they have spoon-shaped blades, rounded or faceted octagonal shanks and short pointed tangs of rectangular section. Four augers (nos. 46-49) retain an Iron collar whIch encircled a now decayed wooden handle.

Apart from minor damage, the augers are well preserved. Before conservation they were so rusty that the
collars went unnoticed.

No.46: 44.2 x 1.8 x 1.2 cm; spoon length 10.1 cm, width 1.7 cm; collar diameter 3.4 cm.
No.47: 37.0 x 1.5 x 2.1 cm; spoon length about 8.5 cm, width 2.9 cm; collar diameter 3.2 cm.

Before conservation this auger was rusted together with a round iron object 37.0 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter and another smaller iron object 6.1 cm long (see nos. 52 and 125).

No.48: 37.0 (the points at both ends are broken) x 1.3 x 1.8 cm; spoon present length 8.1 cm, width 1.9 cm; collar diameter 3.0 cm.

No.49: 34.8 x 1.2 x 1.8 cm; spoon length 8.0 cm, width 1.9 cm; collar diameter 2.7 x 4.3 cm.
No.50: 24.4 x 1.0 x 1.4 cm; spoon length 4.8 cm, width 1.4 cm.
No. 51 16.6 x 0.5 x 0.7 cm; spoon length 2.2 cm, width 0.7 cm

Draw-knife    Pls. 13 and 27:54

Band-shaped draw-knife with curved, sharp-edged blade. The tangs curve inwards at right angles to the plane of the blade and their ends are bent outwards. No traces of the wooden handle remain.

6.7 x 7.8 cm; blade width 1.2 cm, maximum thickness .0.4 cm.

(?)Draw-knife fragment  PI.28:55

Fragment consisting of a curved blade with a sharpedge along one side and a slightly curved tang. A second tang may have been broken off along with part of the blade. The fracture reveals the triangular section of the blade.

12.2 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm.

Moulding-iron   Pls. 13 and 27:57

Tool used to produce mouldings on wooden objects. On either side of the central support the edge is profiled.  The tangs are curved and bend outwards at the ends.  One tang is incomplete.

8.1 x 9.2 x 0.3 cm; width of blade at the support 1.5 cm; tangs width 0.6 cm, thickness 0.4 cm.

Gouge    PI. 28:58

Curved blade of uniform width with square cutting edge and straight tang of rectangular section. The edge is damaged.

16.4 x 0.9 x 0.6 cm.
Chisel     Pls. 12 and 26:59

Chisel with a broad splayed cutting edge and a straight shaft with faceted edges which continues as a straight tang of approximately square section. The end of the tang is slightly bent to one side and is hammered to a knob similar to a rivet-head.
26.0 x 4.7 x 0.9 cm.

Axe     Pls. 12 and 26:61

Axe with almost straight top contour and two flanges extending downwards on each side of the semi-oval haft-hole. The cutting edge of the blade has rusted away.
Length 22.0 cm, width at cutting edge 6.7 cm, butt 2.0 x 4.5 cm. At the narrowest point the width is 2.3 cm; weight 752 g.

Axe Pls. 12 and 26:62

Similar to no.61 (see above), but this axe originally had a more flared edge (‚bearded‘ axe). The damaged part of the edge has been bent over and hammered down firmly.
15.0 x 4.6 x 2.9 cm; butt 3.0 x 2.3 cm; weight 463 g.

Adze     Pls. 12 and 26:63

T -shaped adze with a broad, slightly curved cutting edge. The butt has a rectangular striking face and a tip which points downwards. There are downward-point- ing flanges on each side of the oval haft-hole. The adze is curved from butt to cutting edge. The cutting edge is damaged.
19.8 x 17.0 x 1.7cm; weight719g.

Adze     Pls. 12 and 26:64

Similar to no.63 (see above), but the cutting edge is slightly curved and unusually narrow. The cutting edge is damaged.
15.5 x 5.9 x 1.4 cm; striking face of peen 1.9 x 2.5 cm; weight 272 g.

Blacksmiths‘ iron tools

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 20:65

Hammer with thin peen: the bottom contour is almost straight and the top comprises two slightly curved planes which meet in a point at the haft-hole. The hole retains traces of a wooden haft.
16.6 x 2.9 x 3.8 cm; striking face 2.5 x 3.6 cm; weight 724g.

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 21:66

The surface of the hammer is rough; it is faceted with partly concave sides. One end widens to a rounded head with a domed, convex striking face, while the rectangular striking face at the other end is almost flat. The haft-hole is off-centre. There are traces of the wooden haft.
21.0 x 2.9 x 2.8 cm; weight 602 g.

Hammer     Pls. 6 and 21:67

The haft-hole on this hammer is closer to the peen than to the striking face. There were no traces of wood.
14.5 x 2.6 x 2.6 cm; weight 407 g.

Hammer (stretching hammer)   Pls. 8 and 20:68

The hammer has a rectangular haft-hole near the rounded butt, a slightly faceted head of uniform width and a round, slightly domed and burred striking face. There are perhaps some traces of wood in the haft-hole.
14.8 x 3.0 x 2.1 cm; weight 481 g.

Sledge hammer     Pls. 6 and 20:69
The sledge hammer has a straight bottom and an angled top with the point over the haft-hole. The upper surface has a slight central ridge. The haft-hole retains traces of the wooden haft.
24.5 x 5.6 x 5.6 cm; weight 3370 g.

Sledge hammer    Pls. 6 and 21:70

The bottom of the head is slightly dished, the upper surface is like that described above (no.69) but is not ridged. The haft-hole retains traces of the wooden haft.
21.3 x 3.8 X 5.0 cm; weight 1862 g.

Sledge hammer    Pls. 6 and 21:71

The head tapers a little towards the butt and the peen is thinner towards the end. The top contour is slightly S-shaped. The striking face of the butt is strongly bur- red. There are traces of the wooden haft in the oval haft-hole.
19.7 x 3.9-4.8 x 3.7 cm; weight 1596 h.

Tongs      Pl. 22:43

Small tongs with flat jaws. Most of the shanks are missing.
6.1 x 5.9 x up to 0.2 cm; shanks width 1.0 cm, thick- ness 0.15 cm; jaws maximum width 1.0 cm.

Smithing tongs     Pls. 7 and 22:44

Well-preserved large tongs with flat jaws. The shanks have round sections, and the other parts rectangular sections.
56.0 x 10.0 x 3.2 cm; shanks length 20.5 cm, thickness about 1.5 cm;jaws maximum width 3.0 cm.

Hack-saw of iron    Pls. 7 and 22:36

The tool has two parts: a frame of uniform width which continues to form a tapering tang, and a straight, fine- toothed saw-blade, riveted at one end to the front of the frame and at the other end to the point where the tang begins. The join between the front of the frame and the saw-blade has been further strengthened by flattening the frame and bending round the blade of the flattened portion. Frame, tang and blade are flat and ofrectangu- lar section. The saw-blade is slightly damaged.
Total length 24.0 cm, total height 3.6 cm; frame width 0.6-0.8 cm, maximum thickness 0.25 cm; blade width 0.7-1.0 cm, thickness 0.15 cm.

Saw-blade of iron with coarse teeth  Pls. 14 and 26:41

The teeth are set alternately to the right and left. The saw-toothed edge is slightly curved and the blade, which is of almost uniform width, continues in a strong- ly tapering tang. There are no traces of wood on the tang. The tip of the blade is broken off.
34.5 x 2.0 x 0.4 cm.

Plate-shears     Pls. 6 and 22:45

The blades are not sharpened and the shanks are curved. The blades and lower parts of the shanks have rectangular sections, while the upper parts of the shanks have plano-convex sections.
Length 46.7 cm; blades maximum length 1.8 cm, thick- ness 0.4 cm; shanks maximum width 2.2 cm, thickness 1.0 cm.

Cold drill     Pl. 23:52

The cold drill consists of a cylindrical rod, drilled at one end to a tube about 4 cm long. It tapers slightly at the other end where there is a slightly domed striking’face.
36.9 x 1.4 cm; striking face diameter 1.6 cm.

Polishing iron     Pl. 23:53

Tool used to polish soldered joints. It consists of a round iron rod, bent at right angles at one end, while the other end is straight and forged to a narrow edge.
Length 30.0 cm, diameter 0.6 cm, width at edge 0.4 cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 21:72

Anvil of iron; the narrow base has a slightly concave surface, while the striking face is slightly convex. The shape is roughly, but irregularly, square.
7.8 x 4.0 x 3.0cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 20:73

Anvil of iron, tapering towards the base. The top and bottom faces are both slightly concave. The long sides are flat, the narrow sides curved.
5.9 x 4.0 x 2.1 cm.

Anvil      Pls. 9 and 20:74

Anvil of iron, presumably used for lighter work. The shape is roughly cylindrical, but very irregular. On two opposite sides there are deep depressions. One side may be damaged. 5.2-6.2 x 4.2 cm.

Anvil (beak-iron)    Pls. 8 and 21:75

Beak-iron; it is angular with tapering beak and square section. The foot tapers to a point and the section is circular.
Beak length 11.9 cm, width at base 2.7 cm, thickness up to 3.0 cm; foot length 12.6 cm, maximum thickness 2.4 cm.

Anvil (beak-iron)    Pl.21:76
Small beak-iron. A pointed foot of circular section pro- jects from the centre of the striking face. One half of the striking face is of rectangular section and the other half of circular section.
3.4 x 1.0 x 0.8 cm; foot length 2.2 cm.

Underlay     Pls. 8 and 23:77

This object is made from a coarse iron bar of rectangu- lar section, bent to the shape of an open oval ring. It was perhaps used as an underlay during riveting. 9.2 x 1.8 x 6.2 cm;bar 2.8 x 1.7cm.

Note: Before conservation there were traces of wood from the chest on one side and two smaller (?) iron fragments were rusted to the ring.

Underlay     Pls. 8 and 23:78

Similar to no.77 , but smaller. It is made from a coarse bar of nearly square section with rounded edges. The bar was bent to form an open oval ring.
4.9 x 3.8 x 1.6 cm; bar thickness 1.0 cm.

Punching block or uncompleted draw plate  Pl. 23 :79

An iron bar , cut at both ends, and slightly curved lengthwise. Along the middle of the bar is a single row of twenty-two round-bottomed holes with traces of what may have been another hole at one end. Seven holes have been struck so hard that the punch perforated the bar .
16.4 x 1.2 x 0.4 cm.

Punching block or uncompleted draw plate  Pl. 23 :80

A flat iron bar which tapers at both ends. Twenty-six holes, six of which perforate the bar , are placed in two irregular rows.
13.7 x 1.2 x 0.3 cm.

(?) Draw plate blank     Pl. 23:81

Similar to nos. 79-80 but without punch marks,
12.9 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm.

Dolley       Pl. 23:82

A bar of round section, hollow at one end. 10.1 x 1.5 cm; striking face 2.2 cm.
The tool was used during riveting, serving to hold firm the
members of wood which were to be joined, as for instance when riveting the planks of a boat.

Tool       Pl. 29:83

(?) Chisel. A curved square rod with one end forged to a thin but unsharpened edge, and the other turned over to form an open loop parallel to the edge.
15.4 x 0.9 x 1.2 cm.

Stamp punch      Pl. 22:84

A square rod which thickens towards the striking face. The surface of the stamp, which is much damaged by wear and rusting, has an ornament of hour-glass shape. It is no longer possible to verify this description.
7.5 x 0.4-0.8 x 0.4-0.7 cm; striking face diameter 0.9 cm.

Stamping pad of lead     Pls. 10 and 22:85

An irregularly shaped pad of lead: on both sides there are impressions which may have been made by the stamp no.84, as well as of circles and small holes. The hour-glass ornament is sometimes arranged in irregular , ribbon-like rows.
5.9 x 5.0 x 0.4 cm.

Note. The impressions in the lead show three dots at each corner of the triangles which make up the motif. These dots could not be seen on the stamp either before or after conservation.

Nail-making iron     Pls. 12 and 23:86

The nail-making iron is made from a thick rectangular bar with a forged faceted handle at one end. Along the centre are five holes, four nearly conical and one cylin- drical.
22.9 x 1.9-3.8 x 2.1 cm. The maximum and minimum diameter of the conical holes varies: maximum 0.8-1.1 cm, minimum 0.6-1.0 cm; the cylindrical hole diameter 1.1 cm.

Other tools and objects

Scraper or ash-rake     Pl. 29:60

Iron rod handle with a transverse rectangular plate secured by two rivets.
Length 26.9 cm, plate 9.5 x 5.4 x 0.1-0.2 cm.

Two trace-rings of iron    Pls. 4 and 18:87-88

Rings for fastening traces to the axle-tree of a cart (see Almgren 1946). The rings are made from an iron rod, part of which is hammered flat and shaped into a large loop: the outside edge is thinner than the inside edge. The ends of the rod are twisted to form a shank which ends in a smaller round loop in the same plane as the large loop.
No.87: length 22.5 cm; large loop diameter 10.7 cm; small loop diameter 4.5 cm, thickness 1.4 cm.
No.88: length 23.4 cm; large loop diameter 10.0 cm; small loop diameter 4.3 cm, thickness 1.6 cm.

Two trace-rings of iron    Pls. 4 and 18:89-90

Rings for fastening traces to the axle-tree of a cart. Each ring is made from a single rod and consists of a larger flat loop and a smaller loop of circular section. When no.89 was originally catalogued and drawn, a small S-shaped iron rod ( = Pl. 30: 125 b) was attached to the smaller loop.
No.89: length 14.0 cm; large loop diameter 11.2 cm; thickness large loop 0.9 cm, small loop 1.2 cm.

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